MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Your textbook concludes that the "conquest of the frontier" was 1) _______
A) by and large invisible to Americans of the day and never really captured the imagination of Americans.
B) one of the most brutal examples of imperialism in world history.
C) a way to evade the destructive consequences of national policies by making them seem to be an expression of human progress.
D) mythical because Americans were always finding new frontiers.
2) Barbed wire destroyed the open-range cattle industry because it 2) _______
A) prevented the free movement of cattle.
B) cost so much to fence an entire ranch.
C) mangled large numbers of animals.
D) was too expensive to maintain.
3) The black militant who founded the Afro-American League and called on blacks to use violence when attacked by whites was 3) _______
A) James Bryce. B) John Marshall Harlan.
C) T. Thomas Fortune. D) Wade Hampton.
4) A result of the gold and silver rushes of the late nineteenth century was 4) _______
A) a dramatic decline in the value of the dollar in the world market.
B) inflation because of the coining of the new metals.
C) retarded political development in the West.
D) an improved financial position for
5) Your textbook notes that most scholars agree that American politics in the last quarter of the nineteenth century was 5) _______
A) not connected to the meaningful issues of the day.
B) filled brilliant and insightful Senators and Congressmen.
C) dominated by powerful presidents.
D) unusual in its ability to grapple with crucial longterm problems.
6) In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on a divide and conquer strategy. This was known as the __________ policy. 6) _______
A) tribal unity B) reservation
C) removal and resettlement D) concentration
7) The Homestead Act of 1862 7) _______
A) succeeded admirably in planting 160-acre family farms throughout the West.
B) did not immediately lead to a West with 160-acre family farms due to Native American defense of their homelands.
C) failed to fill the West with 160-acre family farms because most landless Americans were simply too poor to become farmers.
D) was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in
8) The fundamental distinction between the Democrats and the Republicans during the late nineteenth century arose from differences 8) _______
A) on civil rights for blacks, Indian policy, and women's rights.
B) on civil service reform, foreign policy, and protective legislation.
C) in religious affiliation, geographic location, and ethnic background.
D) on tariffs, internal improvements, and currency policy.
9) A bastion of Republican party strength during the latter part of the nineteenth century were the __________ states. 9) _______
A) Southern B) Far Western
C) New England D)
10) The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the 10) ______
A) Great Northern and Northern Pacific.
D) Central Pacific and Union Pacific.
11) One of the worst massacres committed by white troops in the Indian Wars occurred at 11) ______
A) Medicine Lodge. B) Sand Creek.
C) Horse Creek. D)
12) Open-range cattle raising was virtually ended by the 12) ______
A) importation of cheap beef from
B) combination of the drought of 1886 and the blizzards of 1886-87.
C) registration of cattle brands and improvements in scientific breeding.
D) completion of the transcontinental railroad.
13) Which of the following is true of the frontier farmers of the 1870s and 1880s? 13) ______
A) They farmed the land with little knowledge or concern for preventing erosion or preserving fertility.
B) Only the "bonanza" farmers survived the drought of the late eighties.
C) Farmers who diversified their crops were most likely to fail.
D) Cultivating the prairie grasslands was quite similar to
their experience in
14) The black educator Booker T. Washington 14) ______
A) encouraged violence.
B) chose accommodation rather than confrontation.
C) accepted permanent inferior status.
D) stole large sums of money.
15) Because late-nineteenth century Americans tended to tolerate gross waste and corruption so long as it did not interfere with their own pursuit of profit, Mark Twain labelled this period the 15) ______
A) Era of Good Feelings. B) Gilded Age.
C) High-on-the-Hog Years. D) Nightmare Years.
16) The future American president involved in open-range ranching was 16) ______
A) William McKinley. B) Rutherford B. Hayes.
C) Theodore Roosevelt. D) William H. Taft.
17) The "bloody shirt" issue of the Gilded Age refers to 17) ______
A) Federal Indian policies.
B) conflicts between homesteads and ranchers.
C) Chinese exclusion.
D) post-Civil War sectional tensions.
18) Under the Timber and Stone Act of 1878, the government permitted 18) ______
A) private interests to destroy many of the great forests of
B) railroads to claim a mile-wide strip of land on each side of their lines.
C) individuals to claim 160-acre homesteads.
D) individuals to claim up to 320-acre homesteads if they planted 80 acres of trees within ten years.
19) During the Gilded Age, the legislative body known as a "rich man's club" was the 19) ______
C) City Council of
20) The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the northern plains led to the development of 20) ______
A) bonanza farms.
B) open-range ranching.
C) Chicago feedlots and slaughterhouses.
D) refrigerated railroad cars.
21) Most of the wealth from the many mines in the West was gained by the 21) ______
A) large mining corporations.
B) gamblers and desperadoes.
C) original prospectors.
D) freighting and mercantile businesses.
22) Between 1890 and 1910 there was a dramatic increase in __________ blacks. 22) ______
A) civil rights for B) voter registration among
C) lynchings of D) educational opportunities for
23) The doctrine of "separate but equal" facilities was handed down by the Supreme Court in 23) ______
A) the Civil Rights Cases. B) Plessy v.
C) Hall v. De Cuir. D)
found us with the track at
A) use of "indemnity" zones by the Northern Pacific Railroad.
B) completion of the first transcontinental railroad.
C) opening of the "long drive" over the
D) discovery of the
25) "It is with no pleasure I have dipped my hands in the corruption here exposed. . . . The awful death-roll . . . every week is appalling , not only because of the lives it takes, the rank cruelty and outrage to the victims, but because of the prejudice it fosters and the stain it places against the good name of a weak race." This statement was most likely made by a 25) ______
A) labor reformer denouncing unsafe mining conditions.
B) female white supremacist defending mob violence.
C) defender of Native American rights criticizing government policies.
D) black woman criticizing the increased lynching of blacks.
26) Known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was 26) ______
A) Thomas A. Edison. B) Herman Frosch.
C) Alexander Graham Bell. D) George Westinghouse.
27) The labor troubles of 1877 were 27) ______
A) more violent and destructive than any previous strike in
B) the work of foreign labor agitators.
C) centered in
D) the result of significant gains in prosperity for business.
28) "Next followed the final shock--the Pullman strike--and the American Railway Union again won . . . . The . . . corporations were paralyzed. . . . At this juncture there was delivered . . . a swift succession of blows that . . . opened wide my eyes--and in the gleam of every bayonet and the flash of every rifle the class struggle was revealed. This was my first practical lesson in socialism." The author of the above was 28) ______
A) Eugene Debs. B) Terence Powderly.
C) Jacob Riis. D) Samuel Gompers.
29) The major development in retailing during this period was the 29) ______
A) growth of huge urban department stores.
B) development of national brand names.
C) invention of the franchise chain store.
D) growth of modern advertising on a nationwide scale.
30) The creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887 30) ______
A) was exactly what the railroads desired.
B) provided immediate relief for the farmer.
C) functioned much better than was expected.
D) challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire.
31) As a result of the intense competition among railroads, 31) ______
A) industrial decentralization was encouraged.
B) costs for small shippers decreased more than they did for any other group.
C) railroad rates dropped dramatically and uniformly on all lines.
D) the railroads were unstable financially and vulnerable to any downturn in the business cycle.
32) The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the 32) ______
A) National Labor Union.
B) American Federation of Labor.
C) Knights of Labor.
D) Industrial Workers of the World.
33) "Up to 1877, so far as now known, no extensive, well-systemized mercantile store establishment upon a large scale existed in the United States. . .The evolution in mercantile business during the last quarter of a century has been wrought not by combinations of capital, corporations or trusts, but by the natural growth of individual mercantile enterprises." The above author was defending the 33) ______
A) growth of huge, urban department stores.
B) creation of the "tontine" system in retailing.
C) invention of the retail franchise.
D) practice of giving "rebates" to preferred customers.
34) "I will have the best equipped and largest laboratory extant, and the facilities incomparably superior to any other for rapid & cheap development of an invention, & working it up into commercial shape with models, patterns, & special machinery. In fact there is no similar institution in existence." The above author was 34) ______
A) Henry Ford. B) John D. Rockefeller.
C) A. T. Stewart. D) Thomas A. Edison.
35) "By way of attempting to give. . .some general impression. . .of the relations of the rich and poor to one another, perhaps I cannot do better than to compare society. . .to a prodigious coach which the masses of humanity were harnessed to and dragged toilsomely along a very hilly and sandy road. The driver was hungry and permitted no lagging. . .Despite the difficulty of drawing the coach at all along so hard a road, the top was covered with passengers who never got down, even in the steepest ascents." The above author was 35) ______
A) Henry George. B) Andrew Carnegie.
C) Edward Bellamy. D) Henry Demarest Lloyd.
36) The __________ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel. 36) ______
A) Tontine B)
Dumbbell C) Carbon-13 D)
37) Most Americans reacted to the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations and the increasing complexity of economic relations by 37) ______
A) doing nothing, since most Americans were unaware of the vast changes in the economy.
B) joining socialists in their demands for government ownership of basic industries.
C) praising them as results of the freemarket.
D) fearing monopolistic power, yet being greedy for all the new goods and services.
38) The open-hearth method of making steel was superior in some ways to the Bessemer process because it 38) ______
A) was cheaper.
B) was much faster.
C) allowed more quality control.
D) allowed larger quantities of ore in the furnace.
A) Munn v.
C) Reagan v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company (1894).
40) From 1873 to 1893, the economy experienced 40) ______
A) significant government regulation.
B) declining productivity.
C) intense competition for markets.
D) strong inflationary trends.
41) "Every contract, combination in the form of trust. . ., or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is hereby declared to be illegal." The source of the above is 41) ______
C) the Interstate Commerce Act.
D) Munn v.
42) Technological changes in the petroleum industry in the late nineteenth century 42) ______
A) occurred rapidly and put a premium on refining efficiency.
B) were slow in coming because there was not a substantial consumer demand for petroleum products.
C) had little impact compared to those in iron and steel.
D) were retarded by the monopolistic control exerted by John D. Rockefeller.
43) In the late nineteenth century, wealth, power, and influence were 43) ______
A) available to anyone who worked hard and was honest.
B) increasing among farmers in the
C) increasingly concentrated among the largest financiers.
D) more evenly distributed than at any other previous time in American history.
44) When compared to others in the late nineteenth century, farmers experienced 44) ______
A) increasing status.
B) increasing wealth.
C) declining status.
D) increasing percentage of the population.
45) In the late nineteenth century, educated, middle-class women dominated the new profession of 45) ______
A) college teaching. B) journalism.
C) home economics. D) nursing.
46) Urban transportation was revolutionized and urban development was redirected in the 1880s by 46) ______
A) electric trolleys. B) horsecarts.
C) subway systems. D) concrete paving of streets.
47) Supporters of the Social Gospel Movement believed 47) ______
A) people would receive their rewards in heaven.
B) the church should focus on improving the lives of the poor, ending child labor, and regulating the power of big corporations.
C) God would provide for the faithful.
D) poverty grew out of sin and therefore the poor were being punished for their evil ways.
48) "Competition is not law, but anarchy. . .Cain was the author of competitive theory. The cross of Jesus stands as its eternal denial." The author of the above was an advocate of 48) ______
A) Christian socialism. B) social Darwinism.
C) Marxism. D) Christian fundamentalism.
49) The Granger movement of the 1870s led to 49) ______
A) federal civil service reform.
B) cooperative experiments in marketing farm products.
C) agricultural experiment stations at land-grant universities.
D) rural property tax relief.
50) In general, the workers who were usually well-off as a result of late nineteenth-century industrialization were 50) ______
A) skilled industrial workers. B) workers in traditional crafts.
C) day laborers. D) women office workers.
51) The first widely popular professional boxer was 51) ______
A) "Gentleman" Jim Corbett. B) John L. Sullivan.
C) Jack Johnson. D) Paddy Ryan.
52) "I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always. . .use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic Church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church oppressed people." The above author was a member of the 52) ______
A) Knights of Labor.
B) Democratic Party.
C) American Protective Association.
D) Grand Army of the Republic.
53) The first
electric trolley car line in
54) Characters asked themselves: "What would Jesus Do?" in Charles M. Sheldon's best-selling Social Gospel novel titled 54) ______
A) How the Other Half Lives. B) In His Steps.
C) Applied Christianity. D) A Life for Christ.
55) The so-called "birds of passage" during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were 55) ______
A) a minority of all who entered the
B) usually Englishmen and Scotsmen.
C) a majority of all who entered the
D) on the whole poor workers.
56) By the 1890s, how did most Americans respond to the changes of industrialization and urbanization? 56) ______
A) They blamed these changes for the increasing rates of divorce, heart disease, and mental illness.
B) They continued to be optimistic and uncritical admirers of American civilization.
C) They feared the country worshipped material success as its god.
D) They were disgusted by the lawlessness and power of modern corporations.
57) Walter Camp played a major role in establishing 57) ______
A) the role of religion in education.
B) football as a major sport.
C) baseball as a major sport.
D) modern medical schools.
58) President Charles W. Eliot of Harvard University pioneered in 58) ______
A) adapting German teaching techniques to America.
B) establishing law and medical schools.
C) introducing Darwinian thought.
D) introducing the elective system.
59) In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age. 59) ______
A) Stanford B) Vassar
C) Harvard D) Johns Hopkins
60) Although he had almost no formal training, Winslow Homer is considered a master because of his 60) ______
A) brilliant watercolors.
B) romantic landscapes.
C) magnificent oils depicting classical subjects.
D) portrayal of American slums.
61) In novels like A Hazard of New Fortunes, William Dean Howells 61) ______
A) popularized the "local color" school of writing.
B) examined the burden of the Puritan past in New England.
C) dealt realistically with sexual love.
D) portrayed the whole range of metropolitan life.
62) The educator John Dewey insisted that 62) ______
A) home and family should be the center of education.
B) schools should only teach the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic.
C) churches should assume a larger role in education.
D) education was the fundamental method of social progress.
63) Because of the increase in both the number of college graduates and the influence of alumni, American higher education 63) ______
A) regained its focus on training clergy.
B) was increasingly focused on social activities, fraternities, and organized athletics with winning teams.
C) became the dominant force in the economy.
D) dominated the values of the larger society rather than merely reflecting those values.
64) In his frontier thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that 64) ______
A) laws should evolve as times and conditions change.
B) the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
C) democracy began among the Teutonic people.
D) the frontier had inhibited democracy.
65) "No particular results then,. . .but only an attitude of orientation, is what the pragmatic method means. The attitude of looking away from first things, principles, 'categories,' supposed necessities; and of looking towards last things, fruits, consequences, facts." The above author was 65) ______
A) William James. B) Lester Frank Ward.
C) Henry Adams. D) Josiah Royce.
66) Members of the institutionalist school of economics such as Richard T. Ely and John R. Commons thought that 66) ______
A) Darwin's ideas explained how slowly society evolved.
B) religion, not science, was the key to truth.
C) actual industrial conditions should be studied with practical social reform as a goal.
D) all economic activity was governed by immutable natural laws, exactly like Newton's laws about physics.
67) Under the influence of Charles Darwin, the new social sciences turned much of their energy to studying the 67) ______
A) development of institutions and their interactions with each other.
B) immutable natural laws which govern all human behavior.
C) ways in which genetic inheritance predetermines human behavior.
D) parallels between human and primate forms of social organization.
68) Probably the most famous of all the gold strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and the Big Bonanza, was 68) ______
A) Virginia City, Nevada. B) Deadwood, South Dakota.
C) Butte, Montana. D) Pike's Peak, Colorado.
69) The government's administration of Indian affairs was notable over the years for its 69) ______
A) level of corruption.
B) careful long-range planning.
C) pursuit of Native American rights.
D) dedicated public servants.
70) During the late nineteenth century, the House of Representatives was 70) ______
A) small enough to encourage real debate.
B) disorderly and inefficient.
C) controlled by a few long-term members.
D) admired for its statesmanship.
71) How did politicians respond to the demand for civil service reform? 71) ______
A) Republicans supported and Democrats rejected it.
B) Both Democrats and Republicans insisted it would destroy the political parties.
C) Democrats supported and Republicans rejected it.
D) Neither party officially endorsed it.
72) The mammoth organization of Union Army veterans that quickly became a powerful national political pressure group was the 72) ______
A) Stars and Bars. B) American Legion.
C) Grand Army of the Republic. D) Union Party.
73) On the eve of the Civil War the American Indians in the West 73) ______
A) had almost no contact with American and European culture.
B) still occupied about 50 percent of the United States.
C) were no longer dependent on the buffalo.
D) were still reluctant to adopt any white technology.
74) "The money lenders in the United States, who own substantially all our money, have a selfish interest in maintaining the gold standard. . .They believe that if the gold standard can survive for a few years longer, the people will get used to ithorizontalget used to their povertyhorizontaland quietly submit." The above author was addressing the topic of 74) ______
A) protective tariffs. B) American trade deficits.
C) federal banking regulation. D) currency reform.
75) National elections between 1856 and 1912 were characterized by 75) ______
A) no noticeable trends.
B) closely contested contests.
C) contests easily won by the Republicans.
D) contests easily won by the Democrats.
76) When J. P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he 76) ______
A) reversed his earlier commitment to decentralization.
B) formed the first billion dollar corporation.
C) was sued under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
D) was sued under the Interstate Commerce Act.
77) John D. Rockefeller's success was due primarily to his 77) ______
A) perfection of the modern, moving assembly line.
B) refusal to compete unfairly.
C) talents as an organizer and his meticulous attention to detail.
D) vast knowledge of petroleum technology.
78) The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue "cease and desist" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the 78) ______
A) Federal Transportation Board.
B) Interstate Commerce Commission.
C) Federal Railroad Commission.
D) General Services Administration.
79) Prominent advocate of social Darwinism, William Graham Sumner was identified with the phrase 79) ______
A) "the voice of the people is the voice of God."
B) "the invisible hand."
C) "it's root, hog, or die."
D) "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."
80) The novelist who described America evolving into an ideal socialist state was 80) ______
A) Henry George. B) Henry Demarest Lloyd.
C) Edward Bellamy. D) Richard T. Ely.
81) In The Cooperative Commonwealth, Laurence Gronlund 81) ______
A) justified the mergers of gigantic corporations as the best way to increase harmony and efficiency.
B) provided the first serious attempt to explain the ideas of Karl Marx to Americans.
C) advocated a violent revolution in which the exploitation and injustice of capitalism would be replaced by socialism.
D) defended the Granger laws as the only means by which the family farm could be preserved.
82) Calvin M. Woodward was instrumental in establishing 82) ______
A) adult education programs. B) medical schools.
C) kindergartens. D) vocational high schools.
83) The founder of Hull House was 83) ______
A) Dr. Stanton Coit. B) Jane Addams.
C) Lillian Wald. D) Henry Ward Beecher.
84) Early social workers who visited working-class homes in the late nineteenth century discovered 84) ______
A) poverty and degradation only among the new immigrant working-class families.
B) uniform poverty and degradation among all working-class families and occupations.
C) considerable differences in the standard of living among families in the same occupation.
D) uniform prosperity among all working-class families and occupations.
85) Late nineteenth-century spectator sports were notable for their 85) ______
A) chivalry and lack of brutality.
B) predominantly rural audiences.
C) prohibitions on gambling and betting.
D) mixture of upper- and working-class interests.
86) The new literary style of the 1870s and 1880s which often examined social problems such as slum conditions and portrayed people of every social class was 86) ______
A) romanticism. B) realism.
C) pragmatism. D) neo-classicism.
87) The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. upon evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth century 87) ______
A) anthropology. B) jurisprudence.
C) education. D) astronomy.
88) "Jim could a got out of that window hole before this, only there wouldn't be no use trying to travel with a ten-foot chain on his leg. Why, drat it, Huck, It's the stupidest arrangement I ever see." The author of the above was 88) ______
A) Mark Twain. B) John Singer Sargent.
C) Frank Norris. D) Henry James.
89) Barbed wire was invented by 89) ______
A) Joseph F. Glidden. B) S. D. Butcher.
C) Walter Prescott Webb. D) Joseph G. McCoy.
90) According to your text, one consequence of the dramatic increase in white violence against blacks was that 90) ______
A) female white supremacists contradicted ideals of feminine domesticity by their public activities.
B) prominent white church leaders in the South denounced lynch mob leaders.
C) President Cleveland threatened to send federal troops to safeguard black rights.
D) both black men and black women were driven out of the public arena.
91) Blacks in the South were not totally disfranchised or segregated until 91) ______
A) Cleveland gave his approval in 1887.
B) Radical Reconstruction ended in 1877.
C) southern states enacted literacy tests and poll taxes in the 1890s.
D) the Fifteenth Amendment was repealed.
92) The emphasis in railroad construction after 1865 was on 92) ______
A) eliminating unused feeder and trunk lines.
B) perfecting more efficient steam engines.
C) building cheaper rolling stock.
D) organizing integrated systems.
93) Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines through 93) ______
A) refusing to carry goods except under specific contract.
B) giving them rebates.
C) providing private cars for them.
D) selling them stock at below the market price.
94) "What I feel puzzled about is, what is meant by following Jesus. What do you mean when you sing 'I'll go with Him, with Him all the way'? Do you mean that you are suffering and denying yourselves and trying to save lost, suffering humanity just as I understand Jesus did?. . .Somehow I get puzzled when I see so many Christians living in luxury and singing 'Jesus, I my cross have taken, all to leave and follow Thee,' and remember how my wife died in a tenement in New York City, gasping for air and asking God to take the little girl too." The author of the above was 94) ______
A) Henry Ward Beecher. B) Charles Sheldon.
C) William Graham Sumner. D) William Marcy Tweed.
95) The American expatriate artist deeply influenced by French Impressionism was 95) ______
A) Charles L. Freer. B) Thomas Eakins.
C) Winslow Homer. D) Mary Cassatt.
96) In 1867, the government tried a new strategy toward the Plains Indians, 96) ______
A) accepting the Native Americans' rights to speak their own language and practice their own religion.
B) training the reservation Native Americans to become farmers like other Americans.
C) negotiating with all tribes to achieve a single unified treaty.
D) negotiating with each tribe separately.
97) Following the Civil War, most southern railroad systems were 97) ______
A) financed by local capital.
B) controlled by European investors.
C) controlled by northern capitalists.
D) continuing to decline.
98) What was the place of agriculture in the late nineteenth-century economy? 98) ______
A) Its relative place in the national economy declined steadily.
B) It maintained its relative place in a stagnating national economy.
C) It maintained its relative place in a rapidly expanding national economy.
D) It became increasingly more profitable than other areas of the economy.
99) A form of popular education which illustrated the popular desire for new information in the late nineteenth century was the 99) ______
A) Sunday school.
B) Chautauqua movement.
C) settlement house reading session.
100) The black leader identified with the "Atlanta Compromise" was 100) ______
A) T. Thomas Fortune. B) W.E.B. Du Bois.
C) Booker T. Washington. D) Frederick Douglass.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
101) Describe how blacks were treated after the end of Reconstruction. To what extent did Booker T. Washington symbolize the dilemma faced by most blacks in this era?
102) Describe the main trends and events in the late nineteenth century labor movement. Evaluate the implications of their results for American society.
103) Explain how and why cities grew in the late nineteenth century. Describe any problems this urban growth caused.
104) Summarize the changes which took place at all levels of American education in the late nineteenth century. Summarize the general characteristics these changes shared.